Yadkin Project (FERC No. 2197)
National Register of Historic Places Eligibility Study
Final Study Plan
Generating Inc. (APGI) is the licensee for the Yadkin Hydroelectric Project.
The Yadkin Project is currently licensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC) as Project No. 2197. This
license expires in 2008 and APGI must file a new license application with FERC
on or before
The Yadkin Project
consists of four reservoirs, dams, and powerhouses (High Rock, Tuckertown,
As part of the relicensing process, APGI prepared and distributed, in September 2002, an Initial Consultation Document (ICD), which provides a general overview of the Project. Agencies, municipalities, non-governmental organizations and members of the public were given an opportunity to review the ICD and identify information and studies that are needed to address relicensing issues. To further assist in the identification of issues and data/study needs, APGI formed several Issue Advisory Groups (IAGs) to advise APGI on resource issues throughout the relicensing process. IAGs also have the opportunity to review and comment on Draft Study Plans. One of the IAGs, the Cultural Resources Issue Advisory Group, was formed to address historic, architectural, and archaeological properties within the project’s boundary.
Section 106 of the
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires that FERC take into account
the effects of its relicensing decision on historic properties, and to allow the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) a reasonable opportunity to
comment on FERC’s relicensing decision. In
August of 2003, Thomason and Associates prepared a Draft Study Plan for this
project based upon the level of work previously performed for the Tapoco and
Duke Power projects. On
Yadkin proposes to
conduct architectural and historical surveys of the four hydroelectric plants
within the Yadkin Hydroelectric Project. These
properties consist of the
A physical inventory of each development will be conducted. This will include an architectural description of each property associated with the development, dates of construction, changes and alterations to the property over time, modern intrusions, and level of historic and architectural integrity.
Black and white photographs will be taken of each exterior façade, significant details and representative interiors. Color slides will also be taken to support NRHP nominations for eligible properties.
Historical research on the four
developments will be completed. This
will include primary research at the state archives in
Recommendations for NRHP eligibility will be made in accordance with National Register criteria. The reassessment of the Narrows Development will include a descriptive and photographic update of all of the Narrows Development properties and a reevaluation of its NRHP-listed boundaries. The Falls and High Rock Development may be potentially eligible for the NRHP based upon their dates of construction, historical significance, and retention of their architectural and engineering character. In the case of the Tuckertown Development, the guidelines for properties that may have achieved significance within the past 50 years will also be applied.
5. The four hydroelectric projects will be evaluated as a complex of facilities rather than as individual units such as the dams, powerhouses, and other ancillary buildings or structures. The approach will focus on the eligibility of each project as an historic district made up of contributing and non-contributing elements. Surface remains of earlier buildings and structures will also be assessed for eligibility within the district boundaries.
In updating the nomination for the
Additional Scope of Work – Cultural Landscape Study
At the meeting of
The Yadkin FERC
project encompasses portions of Stanly,
The construction of these dams along with other 20th century projects changed the cultural landscape of the Yadkin River valley in central North Carolina from a 19th century traditional agricultural society to primarily a 20th century industrial society. Villages, buildings, structures, ferries, roads and bridges within the reservoir’s boundaries were either relocated, removed, or inundated when the lakes were impounded.
landscape of the Yadkin FERC area is now representative of the 20th
century effects of the dam and powerhouse construction, and reservoir
impoundment. Within the past fifty years, sections of the shoreline have also
been extensively developed for residential construction especially along Abbott
and Swearing Creeks on
In order to complete a cultural landscape study of the Yadkin FERC project area, the Consultant proposes the following actions:
Completion of historical research on the
2. Identification of buildings and structures which existed within the project area such as dwellings and outbuildings, commercial buildings, churches, schools, social buildings, cemeteries, and other uses.
The Consultant will utilize all readily available 19th and early 20th
century maps of the project area. These maps may include countywide USGS quad
maps, soil survey and geologic survey maps, road maps, Civil War-era maps, and
overall county maps. The North Carolina Archives,
The Consultant will contact county historians and historical groups in
For the Trading Ford area of the Yadkin Project, the Consultant will review
studies and reports completed by the North Carolina Department of Transportation
(NCDOT) within the Trading Ford vicinity. Several studies have already been
completed of the Trading Ford by NCDOT and within this area the agency has
6. Upon the completion of research, the Consultant will utilize present-day USGS quad maps of the project area to identify any possible landscape elements that remain along the shoreline. For any extant properties that may be potentially significant, the Consultant will conduct site visits to record any surface features which remain. It is anticipated that the majority of properties identified in this study will be beneath the surface of the reservoirs. Possible sites along the shoreline may include sections of roadbeds, cemeteries, building foundations, ferry crossings, bridges, remnants of farmsteads such as outbuildings and stone walls, and vegetation such as fruit trees and domestic plantings.
At the conclusion of the research, field survey, and NRHP assessment phases, a draft report will be prepared that contains the following information.
An overview of the history of
hydroelectric power in
An overview of the history of
Alcoa and its operations in
Architectural, historical and photographic documentation of the four developments.
A listing of hydroelectric property types and registration requirements.
Recommendations for or against NRHP eligibility of the four developments.
Recommendations, if any, to changes in the NRHP status or boundaries for the Narrows Development.
An analysis of the cultural
landscape of the Yadkin FERC project area containing an historical overview of
the project area, how the cultural landscape has evolved over time, maps and
photographs documenting the history of the area and identified resources along
the shoreline or within the FERC boundary. All properties subject to field
survey will be discussed and reviewed for their eligibility to meet National
Register criteria. The report will contain an analysis of the cultural landscape
The draft report will be distributed to the IAG for review and comment, the comments addressed, and a final report prepared. Upon acceptance of the final report by the SHPO, nominations for any NRHP-eligible properties will be prepared in accordance with National Register standards.
Physical inventory, photography, historical research August 2003-January 2004
and NRHP assessments
Draft Report February 2004
Final Report May 2004
Submittal of NRHP Nominations to SHPO July 2004